Is Leadership equivalent to Management?
1. Our Mid-Term Lecture Goals about Leadership
During my lecture on organizational behavior at CIBC Freiburg, the students were confronted with a basic management paradox. The Paradox is whether being a manager also means being a leader within an organizational setting. Much of the debate evolves around many know scholars, who agree and disagree with the following views:
- a leader is a manager: meaning that management depends on leadership
- a manager is a leader: meaning that leadership depends on management
- a leader is a leader: meaning that leadership is distinct to management
- a manager is a manager: meaning that management is distinct to leadership
(3) and (4) state the same argument from a different perspective. (1) and (2) suggest various forms of causality or dependencies.
2. The learning processes
The main readings involved interacting with the following literature: Mullins, Laurie J.; Christy, Gill (2016): Management & Organisational Behaviour. 11th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. An intensive 16-chapter literature that is not only rich in theoretical background of organizational behavior, but also includes lots of case studies and review questions for students to interact with. The book provides it´s information in four parts: (1) The Organizational Setting, (2) the Individual, (3) Groups, Leadership and Management and (4) Structure, Strategy and Effectiveness. Since October 2018 we accomplished our mid-term goals; of going through the first ten chapters. In section 3 of the book, students learned about groups and teams within the organizational setting, which integrates the previous seven chapters (two sections) of the book; organizational setting and the individual.
Section 1 - Understanding the nature of the Organization
In section 1, the students are confronted with the nature of the organization. After discovering what organizational behavior (chapter 1) is, chapter 2 preceded with approaches to organizational management and ended with chapter 3 that sought the understanding of the organizational environment.
Section 2 - Understanding the organizational members
In section 2, the learning process focused on understanding the individual or the organizational members, which included the following issues: Chapter 4 – Individual Differences and Diversity, Chapter 5 – Learning and Development, Chapter 6 – Perception and Communication and ended with Chapter 7 – Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction.
section 3 - Understanding Groups, Teams, Leadership and Management
In section 3, the learning process focused on understanding how the individuals (organizational members) integrate in groups and teams (Chapter 8) to accomplish their tasks within the organizational setting. The also encountered how to explain leadership (Chapter 9) and understand management (Chapter 10).
Section 4 - understanding the Structure, Strategy and Effectiveness of Organizations
Section 4 is forthcoming in January 2019. In this section the students will encounter the structure and design of organization (Chapter 11) and how technology affects organizations (Chapter 12). Furthermore, the discussion will also focus on organizational control and power distribution among the members, processes and structures (Chapter 13). After that the students will learn about corporate strategy, responsibility and ethics (Chapter 14), before discussing about organizational culture and change (Chapter 15). Finally, the learning process will end with the issue of organizational performance and development (Chapter 16).
3. Understanding Leadership and Management
In order to understand similarities and differences between leadership and management one might attempt to view leadership (chapter 9) separate to management (chapter 10).
Leadership focuses on the interpersonal relationship between organizational members regardless of hierarchy, structure and processes in the organizational system. Leadership could be viewed as focusing more on the informal aspect of the organization (Chapter 3: Ice-Berg-Model); how leaders can impact on the motivation, perception, satisfaction and communication between organizational members and account for individual differences as well as diversity (Section 2) in the endeavors to achieve organizational mission and vision.
Management on the other side focus on the relationship between organizational members base on their role within the hierarchy, structure and work processes in the organizational system. Management could be viewed as focusing more on the formal aspect of the organization (Chapter 3: Ice-berg-Model); how managers can impact the outcomes of motivation, perception, satisfaction and communication between organizational members in their specified roles within processes, structures and business models (the organizational system) and account for individual differences as well as diversity of how to achieve the outcomes (mission and vision) (section 1 and 2).
Leadership is therefore a tool to nature the benefits of the informal organization, while management includes all the integral formal mechanisms that monitor and control the outcomes of the organization. Organizational members have two fundamental roles within the organizational setting; one the role to lead and the role to manage.
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